HSC Office of Professionalism

MSC 09 5300
1 University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001

Phone: (505) 272-8711
Fax: (505) 272-3486


Professions, Professionalization and Professionalism

Becker, H. S. (1962). The nature of a profession. Education for the Professions. Chicago, National Society for the Study of Education: 27-46. 

Bledstein, B. J. (1985). "Discussing terms: professions, professionals, professionalism." Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies 10: 1-15. 

Burger, W. E. (1993). "The Decline of Professionalism." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 137(4): 481-487.

Cogan, M. L. (1953). "Toward a definition of profession." Harvard Educational Review 23: 33-50.

Elliot, P. (1972). The sociology of professions. London, Macmillan. 

Evetts, J. (2003). "The sociological analysis of professionalism." International Sociology 18(2): 395-415. 

Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: The Third Logic. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 

Hafferty, F. (2004). "Toward the Operationalization of Professionalism: A Commentary." American Journal of Bioethics 4(2): 28-31.

Hafferty, F. (2006). "Definitions of professionalism: a search for meaning and identity." Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 449: 193-204. 

Hughes, E. C. (1963). "Professions." Daedalus 92(4): 655-668. 

Martimianakis, M. and e. al. (2009). "Sociological interpretations of professionalism." Medical Education 43(9): 829-837. 

Moore, N. J. (1987). "Professionalism Reconsidered." Law and Social Inquiry. 

Medical Professionalism 

Blackmer, J. (2007). Professionalism and the Medical Association. World Medical Association. 

Bullough, V. L. (1966). The development of medicine as a profession. New York, Hafner Publishing Co.

Fichter, A. (2009). "The law of doctoring: a study of the codification of medical professionalism." Health Matrix 19(2): 317.

Freidson, E. (1970). Profession of Medicine:  A study of the sociology of applied knowledge. New York, Dodd, Mead and Co. 

Frohna, A. Z. (2007). "Professionalism in Medicine: Critical Perspectives." JAMA 297(19): 2141. 

Hilton, S. R. and H. Slotnick (2005). "Proto-professionalism: how professionalisation occurs across the continuum of medical education." Medical Education 39(1): 58-65.

Holsinger, J. W. and B. Beaton (2006). "Physician professionalism for a new century." Clinical Anatomy 19: 473-479.

Horton, R. (2004). "Medical Professionalism." The Lancet 364(9446): 1647.

Humphrey, H. (2008). "Medical professionalism: introduction." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51(4): 491-494. 

Lucey, C. and W. Souba (2010). "The Problem With the Problem of Professionalism." Academic Medicine 85(6): 1018-1024.

MacKenzie, C. R. (2007). "Professionalism and Medicine." HSS Journal 3(2): 222-227.

Miettinen, M. D. and K. Flegel (2003). "Professionalism in medicine." Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9(3): 353-356. 

Montague, J. B., Jr. (1966). "Professionalism among American, Australian, and English Physicians." Journal of Health and Human Behavior 7(4): 284-289.

Montgomery, J. (1989). "Medicine, Accountability, and Professionalism." Journal of Law and Society 16(3): 319-339.

Morreim, E. H. (2002). "Professionalism and clinical autonomy in the practice of medicine." Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 69(6): 370-.

Pellegrino, E. D. and A. S. Relman (1999). "Professional medical associations." JAMA 282(10): 984-986. 

Reiser, S. J. and R. S. Banner (2003). "The Charter on Medical Professionalism and the limits of medical power." Annals of Internal Medicine 138(10): 844. 

Rothman, D. J. (2000). "Medical professionalism--focusing on the real issues." NEJM 342: 1284-1286.

Sigerist, H. E. (1935). "The history of medical licensure." JAMA 104(13): 1057-1060

Southon, G. and J. Braithwaite (1998). "The end of professionalism?" Social Science and Medicine 46: 23-28.

Stevens, R. A. (2002). "Themes in the history of medical professionalism." Mt. Sinai Journal of Medicine 69(6): 357-362. 

Swick, H. M., C. S. Bryan, et al. (2006). "Beyond the physician charter: reflections on medical professionalism." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49(2): 263.

Ten Have, H. (2000). "Re-evaluating professional autonomy in health care." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21(5): 503-513. 

Wagner, P., J. Hendrich, et al. (2007). "Defining medical professionalism: a qualitative study." Medical Education 41(3): 288-294.

Wear, D. and J. Aultman, Eds. (2006). Professionalism in medicine: critical perspectives. New York, Springer.

Wynia, M. K. (2008). "The short history and tenuous future of medical professionalism: the erosion of medicine's social contract." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51(4): 565-. 

Wynia, M. K., S. R. Latham, et al. (1999). "Medical professionalism in society." NEJM 341: 1612-1616.

Professional, Organizations and Markets 

Abbott, A. (1991). "The future of occupations: occupations and expertise in the age of organization." Research in the Sociology of Organizations 8: 17-42.

Halpern, S. A. (1987). Professional schools in the American university. The academic profession: national, disciplinary, and institutional settings. B. R. Clark. Berkeley, University of California Press: 304-330. 

Harris, G. (2011). As physicians' jobs change, so do their politics. New York Times. 

Havighurst, C. (1987). The changing locus of decision making in the health care sector. Health policy in transition. L. Brown. Durham, NC, Duke University Press: 129-167.

McArthur, J. H. and F. D. Moore (1997). "The Two Cultures and the Health Care Revolution: Commerce and Professionalism in Medical Care." JAMA 277(12): 985-989. 

Makkai, T. and V. Braithwaite (1993). "Professionalism, Organizations, and Compliance." Law and Social Inquiry 18(1): 33-59. 

Mechanic, D. (2000). "Managed care and the imperative for a new professional ethic." Health Affairs 19(5): 100-111.

Peirce, J. C. (2000). "The paradox of physicians and administrators in health care organizations." Health Care Management Review 25(1): 7-28. 

Polder, J. J. and H. Jochemsen (2000). "Professional autonomy in the health care system." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21(5): 477-491.

Relman, A. S. (2007). "Medical Professionalism in a Commercialized Health Care Market." JAMA 298(22): 2668-2670.

Schneller, E. (2001). "Professions and the 21st Century: A Commentary on the Physician as Worker." Health Care Management Review Fall: 71-77.

Swick, H. M. (1998). "Academic medicine must deal with the clash of business and professional values." Academic Medicine 73(7): 751-5. 

Waitzkin, H. and J. Fishman (1997). Inside the system: the patient-physician relationship in the era of managed care. Competitive managed care: the emerging health care system. J. Wilkerson, K. Devers and R. Given. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass: 136-162. 

Wolfe, S. M. (2002). "The Destruction of Medicine by Market Forces." Academic Medicine 77(1): 5-7. 

Ideals, Roles and Expectations 

Bolton, J. W. (2000). "Trust and the healing encounter:  An examination of an unorthodox healing performance." Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21(4): 305-319. 

Cassell, C. K. (1996). "The patient-physician covenant: an affirmation of Asklepios." Annals of Internal Medicine 124(6): 604-606. 

Cassell, E. J. (1986). "The Changing Concept of the Ideal Physician." Daedalus 115(2): 185-208.

Coady, M. and S. Bloch, Eds. (1996). Codes of ethics and the professions. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press. 

Davis, R. L., M. N. Wiggins, et al. (2007). "Defining the core competency of professionalism based on the patient's perception." Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 35(1): 51-54.

Dugdale, L. S., M. Siegler, et al. (2008). "Medical professionalism and the doctor-patient relationship." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51(4): 547-553.

Gregory, J. (1998). Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. John Gregory's writings on medical ethics and philosophy of medicine. 

Hafferty, F. (2000). "The Two Fundamental Duties of the Physician?." Academic Medicine 75(12): 1150. 

Holtman, M. C. (2008). "A theoretical sketch of medical professionalism as a normative complex." Advances in Health Sciences Education 13: 233-245.

Latham, S. R. (2001). Conflict of interest in medical practice. Conflict of interest in the professions. M. Davis and A. Stark. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Moore, N. J. (1989). "Usefulness of Ethical Codes." Annual Survey of American Law 7.

Civility and Conflict

Forni, P. M. (2002). Choosing civility: the 25 rules of considerate conduct. New York, St. Martin's Press. 

Mangiardi, J. R. and E. D. Pellegrino (1992). "Collegiality: what is it?" Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 68(2): 292-296.

Pondy, L. (1969). "Varieties of Organizational Conflict." Administrative Science Quarterly 14(4): 499-505.

Rouner, L. S., Ed. (2000). Civility. Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press. 

Schmidt, S. and T. Kochan (1972). "Conflict: Toward Conceptual Clarity." Administrative Science Quarterly 17(3): 359-370. 

Smith, K. (1989). "The movement of conflict in organizations: The joint dynamics of splitting and triangulation." Administrative Science Quarterly 34: 

Thompson, J. (1960). "Organizational Management of Conflict." Administrative Science Quarterly 4(4): 389-409 

Interprofessional Interactions

Castledine, G. (2004). "Nurses must learn methods to deal with difficult doctors." British Journal of Nursing 13(8): 479-. 

Ho, K. and e. al. (2008). "Making interprofessional education work: the strategic roles of the academy." Academic Medicine 83(10): 934-940. 

Stevens, B. J. (1984). "Nurse/physician relations: a perspective from nursing." Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 60(8): 799-806.

Storch, J. L. (2007). "Shared moral work of nurses and physicians." Nursing Ethics 14(4): 478-491. 

Wilkins, D. B. (1995). "Redefining the" professional" in professional ethics: An interdisciplinary approach to teaching professionalism." Law and Contemporary Problems 58(3/4): 241-258.  

Assessing Professionalism 

Ainsworth, M. A. and K. M. Szauter (2006). "Medical student professionalism: Are we measuring the right behaviors? A comparison of professional lapses by students and physicians." Academic Medicine 81(10 Supplement): S83-S86.

Arnold, L. E., K. E. Race, et al. (1998). "Can professionalism be measured? The development of a scale for use in the medical environment?" Academic Medicine 73(10): 1119-1121.

Dreyer, J. S. (2010). "Assessing professionalism in surgeons." The Surgeon 8: 20-27. 

Epstein, R. M. and E. M. Hundert (2002). "Defining and Assessing Professional Competence." JAMA 287(2): 226-235. 

Gauger, P. and e. al. (2005). "Initial use of a novel instrument to measure professionalism in surgical residents." American Journal of Surgeon 189: 479-487.

Ginsburg, S., G. Regehr, et al. (2000). "Context, Conflict, and Resolution: A New Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Professionalism." Academic Medicine(Supplement 10): S6-S11. 

Hickson, G., J. Pichert, et al. (2007). "A Complementary Approach to Promoting Professionalism: Identifying, Measuring, and Addressing Unprofessional Behaviors." Academic Medicine 82(11): 1040-1048. 

Peeters, M. J. and S. Beltyukova (2009). "Measuring Professionalism in Resident Physicians." JAMA 301(7): 723.

Quaintance, J. and e. al. (2008). "Development of an instrument to measure the climate of professionalism in a clinical teaching environment." Academic Medicine 83(10): 55-58. 

Todhunter, S., S. Cruess, et al. (2011). "Developing and piloting a form for student assessment of faculty professionalism." Advances in Health Sciences Education 16: 223-238.

van Zanten, M. and e. al. (2005). "Using a standardised patient assessment to measure professional attitudes." Medical Education 39: 20-29. 

Wilkinson, T. and W. Wade (2009). "A Blueprint to Assess Professionalism: Results of a Systematic Review." Academic Medicine 84(5): 552-558.

Rees, C. and L. Knight (2007). "The trouble with assessing students' professionalism: Theoretical insights from social cognitive psychology." Academic Medicine 82(1).

Teaching Professionalism

Brainard, A. H. and H. C. Brislen (2007). "Learning professionalism: A view from the trenches." Academic Medicine 82: 1010-1014. 

Bryden, P. and e. al. (2010). "Professing professionalism: Are we our worst enemy?  Faculty members' experiences of teaching and evaluating professionalism in medical education at one school." Academic Medicine 85(6). 

Buyx, A. M. and e. al. (2008). "Challenges of educating for medical professionalism: who should step up to the line?." Medical Education 42(8): 758-764. 

Coverdale, J., R. Balon, et al. (2011). "Cultivating the Professional Virtues in Medical Training and Practice." Academic Psychiatry 35: 155-159. 

Cruess, R. L. and S. Cruess (2007). "Teaching professionalism: general principles." Medical Teacher 28(3): 205-208. 

Dickstein, L. J. (2001). "Educating for Professionalism: Creating a Culture of Humanism in Medical Education." JAMA 285(24): 3147-3148.

Fryer-Edwards, K. and e. al. (2007). "Overcoming institutional challenges through continuous professionalism improvement: The University of Washington Experiences." Academic Medicine 82(11): 1073-1078. 

Gaiser, R. (2009). "The teaching of professionalism during residency: why is it failing and a suggestion to improve its success." Anesthesia and Analgesia 108(3): 948-954. 

Goldstein, E. A., R. R. Maestas, et al. (2006). "Professionalism in medical education: An institutional challenge." Academic Medicine 81: 871-876. 

Goold, S. and D. T. Stern (2006). "Ethics and Professionalism: What Does a Resident Need to Learn?" American Journal of Bioethics 6(4): 9-17.

Humphrey, H., K. Smith, et al. (2007). "Promoting an Environment of Professionalism: The University of Chicago "Roadmap"." Academic Medicine 82(11): 1098-1107.

Hurst, S. A. (2009). "Review: Teaching Medical Professionalism." JAMA 302(12): 1344-1345. 

Inui, T. (2003). "A flag in the wind: educating for professionalism in medicine." Association of American Medical Colleges. 

Jones, W. et. al. (2004). "An intentional modeling process to teach professional behavior: students' clinical observation of preceptors." Teaching and Learning in Medicine 6(3): 264-269.

Karnieli-Miller, O., T. R. Vu, et al. (2011). "Which Experiences in the Hidden Curriculum Teach Students About Professionalism?" Academic Medicine.

Kinghorn, W. A. (2010). "Medical education as moral formation: an Aristotelian account of medical professionalism." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53(1): 87-105. 

Klein, E. J., et al. (2003). "Teaching Professionalism to Residents." Academic Medicine 78(1): 26-34. 

Ludmerer, K. M. (1999). "Instilling Professionalism in Medical Education." JAMA 282: 881-882. 

McLaren, K. and S. DeMers (2011). Professionalism in Medicine: A Curriculum for Psychiatry Residents. AADPRT Model Curriculum.

Rhodes, R., E. Friedman, et al. (2004). "Professionalism in Medical Education." American Journal of Bioethics 4(2): 20-22. 

Saultz, J. W. (2007). "Are We Serious About Teaching Professionalism in Medicine?" Academic Medicine 82(6): 574-577. 

Smith, K., R. Saavedra, et al. (2007). "The journey to creating a campus-wide culture of professionalism." Academic Medicine 82: 1015-1021.

Steinert, Y., etal. (2005). "Faculty development for teaching and evaluating professionalism: from programme design to curriculum change." Medical Education 39: 127-136.

Suchman, A. L., P. R. Williamson, et al. (2004). "Toward an informal curriculum that teaches professionalism." Journal of General Internal Medicine 19(5): 501-504. 

Swick, H. M., P. Szenas, et al. (1999). "Teaching Professionalism in Undergraduate Medical Education." JAMA 282(9): 830-832.

Wasserstein, A. and e. al. (2007). "Institutional leadership and faculty response: fostering professionalism at the University of Pennsylvania school of medicine." Academic Medicine 82(11).

Wear, D. (1997). "The professional development of medical students: problems and promises." Academic Medicine 72(12): 1056-1062. 

Whitcomb, M. E. (2002). "Fostering and Evaluating Professionalism in Medical Education." Academic Medicine 77(6): 473-474. 

Whitehead, J. (1989). "How Do We Improve Research-Based Professionalism in Education?: A Question Which Includes Action Research, Educational Theory and the Politics of Educational knowledge." British Educational Research Journal 15(1): 3-. 


Alam, M. (1998). "Mistreatment and maladaptations during medical internship." JAMA 279(8): 699-700.

Andreoli, N. and J. Lefkowitz (2009). "Individual and Organizational Antecedents of Misconduct in Organizations." Journal of Business Ethics 85(3): 309-332.

Baldwin, D. C. J., S. R. Daugherty, et al. (1991). "Student perceptions of mistreatment and harassment during medical school. A survey of ten United States schools." Western Journal of Medicine 155(2): 140-5.

Baldwin, D. C. J., S. R. Daugherty, et al. (1998). "Unethical and unprofessional conduct observed by residents during their first year of training." Academic Medicine 73: 1195-1200.

Charney, D. A. and R. C. Russell (1994). "An overview of sexual harassment." American Journal of Psychiatry 151(1): 10-17.

Cook, D. J. and e. al. (1996). "Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs." Canadian Medical Association Journal 154(11): 1657-1665.

Coverdale, J., A. Louie, et al. (2005). "Protecting the Safety of Medical Students and Residents." Academic Medicine 29: 329-331.

Coverdale, J., R. Balon, et al. (2009). "Mistreatment of trainees: verbal abuse and other bullying behaviors." Academic Psychiatry 33(4): 269-273.

Daugherty, S. R., D. C. J. Baldwin, et al. (1998). "Learning, satisfaction, and mistreatment during medical internship: a national survey of working conditions." JAMA 279: 1194-1199.

DesRoches, C. M. and e. al. (2010). "Physicians' Perceptions, Preparedness for Reporting, and Experiences Related to Impaired and Incompetent Colleagues." JAMA 304(2): 187-193.

Flynn, T. C. (1986). "What makes internship so bad-and so good." Pharos Spring: 7-8.

Gawande, A. (2002). When good doctors go bad. Complications. New York, Picador: 88-106.

Ginsburg, S., G. Regehr, et al. (2002). "The Anatomy of the Professional Lapse: Bridging the Gap between Traditional Frameworks and Students' Perceptions." Academic Medicine 77(6): 516-522.

Kanter, S. (2010). "Toward a philosophy of dealing with unprofessional conduct." Academic Medicine 85(6): 927-928.

Komaromy, M. and e. al. (1993). "Sexual harassment during medical training." NEJM 328: 322-326.

Leape, L. and J. Fromson (2006). "Problem doctors: is there a system-level solution?" Annals of Internal Medicine 144: 107-115.

Linney, B. J. (1997). "Confronting the disruptive physician." Physician Executive 23(7).

Lubitz, R. M. and D. Nguyen (1996). "Medical student abuse during third-year clerkships." JAMA 275(5): 414-416.

Mangus, R. S., C. E. Hawkins, et al. (1998). "Prevalence of harassment and discrimination among 1996 medical school graduates: a survey of eight US schools." JAMA 280(9): 851-3.

Nagata-Kobayashi, S. and e. al. (2009). "Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment." Medical Education 43(7): 628-36.

Papadakis, M., C. S. Hodgson, et al. (2004). "Unprofessional behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board." Academic Medicine 79: 244-249.

Reddy, S. and e. al. (2007). "Third-Year Medical Students' Participation in and Perceptions of Unprofessional Behaviors." Academic Medicine 82(10): S35-39.

Roberts, L. W. (2009). "Hard Duty." Academic Psychiatry 33: 274-277.

Sheehan, K. H., D. V. Sheehan, et al. (1990). "A pilot study of medical student “abuse”: student perceptions of mistreatment and misconduct in medical school." JAMA 263: 533-537.

Silver, H. K. and A. D. Glicken (1990). "Medical student abuse: incidence, severity, and significance." JAMA 263(4): 527-532.

Suchman, A. L., P. R. Williamson, et al. (2004). "Toward an informal curriculum that teaches professionalism." Journal of General Internal Medicine 19(5): 501-504.

van Ineveld, C. H., D. J. Cook, et al. (1996). "Discrimination and abuse in internal medicine residency." Journal of General Internal Medicine 11: 401-405.

Wear, D., M. Kokinova, et al. (2005). "Pimping: Perspectives of 4th year medical students." Teaching and Learning in Medicine 17(2): 184-191.

Whyte, J. J. and D. P. Beall (1998). "Mistreatment and maladaptations during medical internship." JAMA 280(8): 700.

Witte, F. M., T. D. Stratton, et al. (2006). "Stories from the field: students' descriptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment during medical school." Academic Medicine 81(7): 648-654.

Wolf, T. M., H. M. Randall, et al. (1991). "Perceived mistreatment and attitude change by graduating medical students: a retrospective study." Medical Education 25(3): 182-190.

Wynia, M. K. (2010). "The Role of Professionalism and Self-regulation in Detecting Impaired or Incompetent Physicians." JAMA 304(2): 210-212.